The Montjuïc Cemetery was created in response to a major population increase and the strong economic climate apparent in Barcelona in the first half of the 19th century. The Poblenou Cemetery was clearly insufficient and could no longer be extended due to its location in an area undergoing significant urban development.
The Montjuïc Cemetery was opened on 17 March 1883 by the mayor of Barcelona, Rius i Taulet. The cemetery project formed part of a programme of improvements undertaken by the mayor to expand the city, an endeavour which would later culminate in the 1888 Universal Exhibition. The cemetery reflects the innovative and industrial trends that characterised the city of Barcelona at the end of the century.